We present an integrated microelectronic device for amplification and label-free detection of nucleic acids. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is achieved with on-chip metal resistive heaters, temperature sensors, and microfluidic valves. We demonstrate a rapid thermocycling with rates of up to 50 degrees C s(-1) and a PCR product yield equivalent to that of a bench-top system. Amplicons within the PCR product are detected by their intrinsic charge with a silicon field-effect sensor. Similar to existing optical approaches with intercalators such as SYBR Green, our sensing approach can directly detect standard double-stranded PCR product, while in contrast, our sensor does not require labeling reagents. By combining amplification and detection on the same device, we show that the presence or absence of a particular DNA sequence can be determined by converting the analog surface potential output of the field-effect sensor to a simple digital true/false readout.
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